Scientific and General Interest Publications on Underwater Fluorescence

This page is a list of publications related to fluorescence effects in marine organisms. If you have suggestions for references that should be added to this list, please e-mail


Popular articles/books with color photographs

AW, Michael, 2002. Underwater Jungles Sarawak. OceanNEnvironment, Australia. 128 pp.

Catala-Stucki, Rene, 1964. Carnival Under the Sea. R. Sicard, Paris. 141 pp.

Catala-Stucki, Rene, 1986. Treasures of the Tropic Seas. Facts on File Publications.

Doubilet, David, 1997. A new light in the sea. National Geographic, August, 192: 32-43.

Drafahl, Jack, and Sue Drafahl, 1999. Photographing fluorescent corals. Skin Diver, April, 24:25.

Fagan, Gillian, with photographs by Michael AW, 2005. Coral fluorescence: It’s a kind of magic . Asian Geographic 3:34-45.

Mazel, Charles, 1988. Underwater fluorescence. Sea Frontiers, 34: 274-279.

Mazel, Charles, 1991. Black night, black light: underwater fluorescence. Ocean Realm, summer: 63-68.

Mazel, Charles, 2002. Neon photography: Shedding new light on the reef. Advanced Diver Magazine, issue 6.

Pederson, Harry, 1968. Fluorescent flowers of the sea. Sea Frontiers 14:194-199.

Welsh-Bon, Dan, 2000. Deep-sea Illuminations. BBC Wildlife, October: 24-28.

Zahl, Paul A., 1963. Fluorescent gems from Davy Jones’s locker. National Geographic, August, 124: 260-271.


General interest articles

Marden, L., 1956. Camera Under the Sea. National Geographic, 109: 162-200. (Brief mention of observation of fluorescent anemones.)

Read, K. R. H., 1967. Fluorescence in marine organisms. Aquasphere, 3(3): 6.

Woodbridge, Richard G. III, 1959. Night diving with ultraviolet lights. Skin Diver, August, pp. 22-23.

Woodbridge, Richard G. III, 1961. We dive at night. Skin Diver, February, p. 43.


Scientific publications
(References marked with ** cite the use of NightSea equipment in the Methods section)

**Baird, A. H., A. Salih, and A. Trevor-Jones, 2006. Fluorescence census techniques for the early detection of coral recruits. Coral Reefs, 25:73-76. [Reprint available on-line.]

Baird, G. S., D. A. Zacharias, and R. Y. Tsien, 2000. Biochemistry, mutagenesis, and oligomerization of DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97:11984-11989.

Bou-Abdallah, F., N. D. Chasteen, and M. P. Lesser, 2006. Quenching of superoxide radicals by green fluorescent protein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1760:1690-1695.

Catala, R., 1960. Nouveaux organismes marins presentant des effets de fluorescence par l’action des rayons ultra-violets. C. R. Acad. des Sciences, 250:1128.

Catala, R., 1959. Fluorescence effects from corals irradiated with ultra-violet rays. Nature, 183: 949.

Catala, R., 1958. Effets de fluorescence provoque sur des coraux par l’action des rayons ultra-violets. C. R. Acad. des Sciences, 247: 1678-9.

**D’Angelo, C., A. Denzel, A. Vogt, M. V. Matz, F. Oswald, A. Salih, G. U. Nienhaus, and J. Wiedenmann, 2008. Blue light regulation of host pigment in reef-building corals. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 364:97-106. [Reprint available on-line.]

**D’Angelo, C., E. G. Smith, F. Oswald, J. Burt, D. Tchernov and J. Wiedenmann, 2012. Locally accelerated growth is part of the innate immune response and repair mechanisms in reef-building corals as detected by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like pigments. Coral Reefs, Vol. 31. [Reprint available on-line.]

Delvoye, L., 1995. The histological basis of tissue fluorescence in the hermatypic coral Agaricia agaricites (Linnaeus, 1758), in Proc. Sixth Intl. Conf. on Coelenterate Biology, pp. 143-150.

Delvoye, L., 1992. Endolithic algae in living stony corals: algal concentrations under influence of depth-dependent light conditions and coral tissue fluorescence in Agaricia agaricites (L.) and Meandrina meandrites (L.) (Scleractinia, Anthozoa). Studies on the Natural History of the Caribbean Region, 71:24-41.

Dove, S. G., 2004. Scleractinian corals with photoprotective host pigments are hypersensitive to thermal bleaching, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 272:99-116.

Dove, S. G., O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and S. Ranganathan, 2001. Major colour patterns of reef-building corals are due to a family of GFP-like proteins, Coral Reefs, 19:197-204.

Field,, S. F., M. Y. Bulina, I. V. Kelmanson, J. P. Bielawski, and M. V. Matz, 2006 Adaptive evolution of multi-colored fluorescent proteins in reef-building corals. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 62:332-339.

Fuchs, E., and C. H. Mazel, 1998. An experimental method to separate the fluorescence and reflectance components of the spectral signatures of corals. Proc. Ocean Optics XIV Conference, Hawaii.

Fuchs, E., and C. H. Mazel, 1999. Unmixing coral fluorescence emission spectra and predicting new spectra under different excitation conditions. Applied Optics, 38:486-494.

Gentien, P., 1981. Fluorescent metabolites in coral reefs off Townsville, Queensland. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 32:975-980.

Gilmore, A. M., A. W. D. Larkum, A. Salih, S. Itoh, Y. Shibata, C. Bena, H. Yamasaki, M. Papina, and R.Van Woesik, 2003. Simultaneous time resolution of the emission spectra of fluorescent proteins and zooxanthellar chlorophyll in reef-building corals. Photochem. Photobiol., 77:515-523.

Gross, L. A., G. S. Baird, R. C. Hoffman, K. K. Baldridge, and R. Y. Tsien, 2000. The structure of the chromophore within DsRed, a red fluorescent protein from coral. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97:11990-11995.

Hardy, J. T., F. E. Hoge, J. K. Yungel and R. E. Dodge, 1992. Remote detection of coral ‘bleaching’ using pulsed-laser fluorescence spectroscopy. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 88:247-255.

Heikal, A. A., S. T. Hess, G. S. Baird, R. Y. Tsien, and W. W. Webb, 2000. Molecular spectroscopy and dynamics of intrinsically fluorescent proteins: Coral red (dsRed) and yellow (Citrine). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97:11996-12001.

Hollingsworth, L. L., R. A. Kinzie, T. D. Lewis, D. A. Krupp, and J. C. Leong, 2005. Phototaxis of motile zooxanthellae to green light may facilitate symbiont capture by coral larvae. Coral Reefs, 24:523.

**Hunt, M. E., M. P. Scherrer, F. D. Ferrari, and M. V. Matz, 2010. Very bright green fluorescent proteins from the Pontellid copepod Pontella mimocerami. PLoS ONE 5(7): e11517. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011517.

**Jarett, J., C. Fiore, C. Mazel and M. Lesser, 2013. Fluorescent epibiotic microbial community on the carapace of a Bahamian ostracod. Archives of Microbiology. Published online 17 July 2013. DOI 10.1007/s00203-013-0911-9.

**Kahng, S. E., and A. Salih, 2005. Localization of fluorescent pigments in a nonbioluminescent, azooxanthellate octocoral suggests a photoprotective function. Coral Reefs, 24:435-436.

Kawaguti, S., 1969. Effect of the green fluorescent pigment on the productivity of reef corals. (Abstract), Micronesica, 5:313.

Kawaguti, S., 1966. Electron microscopy on the fluorescent green of reef corals with a note on mucous cells. Biol. J. Okayama University, 2:11-21.

Kawaguti, S., 1944. On the physiology of reef corals VI. Study on the pigments. Palao Trop. Biol. Stn. Stud., 2:617-674.

**Kelmanson, I. V., and M. V. Matz, 2003. Molecular basis and evolutionary origins of color diversity in great star coral Montastraea cavernosa (Scleractinia: Faviida). Mol. Biol. Evol., 20:1125-1133. [Reprint available on-line.]

Lesser, M. P., C. H. Mazel, M. Y. Gorbunov, and P. G. Falkowski, 2004. Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in corals. Science, 305:997-1000.

**Leutenegger, A., C. D’Angelo, M. V. Matz, A. Denzel, F. Oswald, A. Salih, G. U. Nienhaus, and J. Wiedenmann, 2007. It’s cheap to be colorful: Anthozoans show a slow turnover of GFP-like proteins. FEBS Journal, 274: 2496-2505.

**Leutenegger, A., S. Kredel, S. Gundel, C. D’Angelo, A. Salih, and J. Wiedenmann, 2007. Analysis of fluorescent and non-fluorescent sea anemones from the Mediterranean Sea during a bleaching event. JEMBE, 353: 221-234.

Limbaugh, C., and W. J. North, 1956. Fluorescent, benthic, Pacific Coast coelenterates. Nature, 178:497-8.

Logan, A., K. Halcrow and T. Tomascik, 1990. UV excitation-fluorescence in polyp tissue of certain scleractinian corals from Barbados and Bermuda. Bull. Mar. Sci., 46:807-813.

Lukyanov, K.A., A. F. Fradkov, N. G. Gurskaya, M. V. Matz, Y. A. Labas, A. P. Savitsky, M. L. Markelov, A. G. Zaraisky, X. Zhao, Y. Fang, W. Tan, and S. A. Lukyanov, 2000. Natural animal coloration can be determined by a nonfluorescent green fluorescent protein. J. Biol. Chem, 275:25879-25882.

Manica, A., and R. W. Carter, 2000. Morphological and fluorescence analysis of the Montastraea annularis species complex in Florida. Mar. Biol., 137:899-906.

Matz, M. V., A. F. Fradkov, Y. A. Labas, A. P. Savitsky, A. G. Zaraisky, M. L. Markelov and S. A. Lukyanov, 1999. Fluorescent proteins from nonbioluminescent Anthozoa species. Nature Biotechnology, 17:969-973.

**Matz, M. V., N. J. Marshall, and M. Vorobyev, 2006. Are corals colorful?. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 82:345-350.

**Mazel, C. H., 2005. Underwater fluorescence photography in the presence of ambient light. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods, 3:499-510. [Reprint available on-line.]

Mazel, C. H., 1997. Coral fluorescence characteristics: excitation – emission spectra, fluorescence efficiencies, and contribution to apparent reflectance. Ocean Optics XIII, SPIE Vol. 2963:240-245.

Mazel, C. H., 1997. Diver-operated instrument for in situ measurement of spectral fluorescence and reflectance of benthic marine organisms and substrates. Optical Engineering, 36:2612-2617.

Mazel, C. H., 1995. Spectral measurements of fluorescence emission in Caribbean cnidarians. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 120:185-191.

Mazel, C. H., T. W. Cronin, R. L. Caldwell, and N. J. Marshall, 2004. Fluorescent enhancement of signaling in a mantis shrimp. Science, 303:51. [Reprint available on-line.]

Mazel, C. H., and E. Fuchs, 2003. Contribution of fluorescence to the spectral signature and perceived color of corals. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48:390-401. [Reprint available on-line.]

Mazel, C. H., M. P. Lesser, M. Y. Gorbunov, T. M. Barry, J. H. Farrell, K. D. Wyman, and P. G. Falkowski, 2003. Green-fluorescent proteins in Caribbean corals. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48:402-411. [Reprint available on-line.]

Mazel, C. H., M. P. Strand, M. P. Lesser, M. P. Crosby, B. Coles, and A. J. Nevis, 2003. High resolution determination of coral reef bottom cover from multispectral fluorescence laser line scan imagery. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48:522-534. [Reprint available on-line.]

Michiels, N. K., et al., 2008. Red fluorescence in reef fish: A novel signalling mechanism? BMC Ecology, 8:16

**Oswald, F., F. Schmitt, A. Leutenegger, S. Ivanchenko, C. D’Angelo, A. Salih, S. Maslakova, M. Bulina, R. Schirmbeck, G. U. Nienhaus, M. V. Matz, and J. Wiedenmann, 2007. Contributions of host and symbiont pigments to the coloration of reef corals. FEBS Journal 274: 1102-1109.

Palmer, C. V., C. K. Modi, and L. D. Mydlarz, 2009. Coral fluorescent proteins as antioxidants. PLoS ONE. [Reprint available on-line.]

Peloux, Y., 1960. Etude histologique des coraux fluorescents de profondeur, C. R. Acad. des Sciences, 250:1129-30.

Phillips, C. E. S., 1927. Fluorescence of sea anemones. Nature, 119:747.

**Piniak, G. A., N. D. Fogarty, C. M. Addison, and J. Kenworthy, 2005. Fluorescence census techniques for coral recruits. Coral Reefs, 24:496-500. [Reprint available on-line.]

Read, K. R. H., J. M. Davidson and B. M. Twarog, 1968. Fluorescence of sponges and coelenterates in blue light. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 25:873- 882.

Roth, M. S., and D. D. Deheyn, 2013. Effects of cold stress and heat stress on coral fluorescence in reef-building corals. Scientific Reports, 3, Article no: 1421, doi:10.1038/srep01421. [Available on-line]

**Roth, M. S., and N. Knowlton, 2009. Distribution, abundance, and microhabitat characterization of small juvenile corals at Palmyra Atoll. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 376:133-142. [Reprint available on-line.]

**Salih, A., G. Cox, R. Szymczak, S. L. Coles, A. H. Baird, A. Dunstan, G. Cocco, J. Mills, and A. Larkum, 2006. The role of host-based color and fluorescent pigments in photoprotection and in reducing bleaching stress in corals. Proc. 10 ICRS, Okinawa.

Salih, A., A. Larkum, G. Cox, M. Kuhl and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, 2000. Fluorescent pigments in corals are photoprotective. Nature, 408:850-853.

Salih, A., O. Hoegh-Guldberg and G. Cox, 1997. Photoprotection of symbiotic dinoflagellates by fluorescent pigments in reef corals. Proceedings of Australian Coral Reef Society 75th Anniversary Conference, pp. 217-230.

Schlichter, D., U. Meier and H. W. Fricke ,1994. Improvement of photosynthesis in zooxanthellate corals by autofluorescent chromatophores. Oecologia, 99:124-131.

Schlichter, D., H. W. Fricke and W. Weber, 1988. Evidence for PAR- enhancement by reflection, scattering and fluorescence in the symbiotic deep water coral Leptoseris fragilis. Endocyt. C. Res., 5:83-94.

Schlichter, D., H. W. Fricke and W. Weber, 1986. Light harvesting by wavelength transformation in a symbiotic coral of the Red Sea twilight zone. Mar. Biol., 91:403-407.

**Schmidt-Roach, S., A. Kunzmann and P. Martinez Abrizu, 2008. In situ observation of coral recruitment using fluorescence census techniques. JEMBE, 367:37-40.

Shibata, K., 1969. Pigments and a UV-absorbing substance in corals and a blue-green alga living in the Great Barrier Reef. Plant & Cell Physiol., 10:325-335.

Tsien, R. Y., 1999. Rosy dawn for fluorescent proteins. Nature Biotechnology, 17:956-957.

Ugalde, J. A., B. S. W. Chang, and M. V. Matz, 2004. Evolution of Coral Pigments Recreated. Science, 305:1433.

Vermeij, M. J. A., L. Delvoye, G. Nieuwland and R. P. M. Bak, 2002. Patterns in fluorescence over a Caribbean reef slope: the coral genus Madracis. Photosynthetica, 40:423-429.

**Vogt, A., C. D’Angelo, F. Oswald, A. Denzel, C. H. Mazel, M. V. Matz, S. Ivanchenko, G. U. Nienhaus, and J. Wiedenmann, 2008. A green fluorescent protein with photoswitchable emission from the deep sea. PLoS ONE, 3. [Reprint available on-line.]

Woodbridge, R. G. III., 1961. A monograph on Fluorescent Mollusk Shells of the seas, the shores, the fresh waters and the lands of the world. A review of the literature from earliest times to 1960 with original observations. ***By kind permission of Richard G. Woodbridge III, a reprint is available on this web site.

Woodbridge, R. G. III., 1959. Application of ultra-violet lights to underwater research. Nature, 184:259.

Zawada, D. G., and C. H. Mazel, 2014. Fluorescence-based classification of Caribbean coral reef organisms and substrates. PLoS ONE 9(1): e84570. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084570 [available on-line]

Zawada, David G., and Jules S. Jaffe, 2003. Changes in the fluorescence of the Caribbean coral Montastraea faveolata during heat-induced bleaching. Limnol. Oceanogr., 48:412-425. [Reprint available on-line.]

**Zvuloni, A., O. Mokady, M. Al-Zibdah, G. Bernardi, S. D. Gaines, and A. Abelson, 2008. Local scale genetic structure in coral populations: A signature of selection. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56:430-438.